Persian Dill and Lima Bean Rice

Iran has a rich culinary history, and rice resides at the heart of the Persian cooking tradition. Rice was likely introduced to Iran from India during the rule of Darius the Great in the 6th century BCE. Over time it became a staple food item for Iranians, cultivated in many sophisticated varieties. A multitude of flavorful and fragrant rice dishes have emerged throughout the centuries… saffron-scented rice, cooked with herbs and tender meats; sweet rice with dried fruits or sour cherries; vegetable rice, sometimes mixed with legumes… and for the ancient royal courts, there was even rice studded with jewels.

Over time, four methods have developed for preparing Persian rice: kateh, damy, chelow, and polo. Kateh is simply rice steamed with water, salt, oil or butter, and sometimes saffron. Damy is rice steamed more slowly and mixed with uncooked ingredients, like beans or grains. Chelow is parboiled rice mixed with seasonings and/or herbs, then slowly steamed to form a crispy tahdig (sometimes spelled tahdeeg). Polo (or polow) is a variant of chelow in which aromatic ingredients like meat, fruit, and/or vegetables are mixed into the rice. Polo rice dishes are popular for their complex, mouthwatering flavor combinations.

Which brings me to today’s recipe: Persian Dill and Lima Bean Rice. This is my favorite Persian dish, and I’ve spent the past two years looking for the perfect recipe. The original version of this dish, Baghali Polo, is most often made with young, fresh fava beans. The version I’ve grown to love is made with lima beans, but you can also use fresh young fava beans if you wish. I wanted a non-dairy version for my kosher readers; Persian cooks sometimes use butter or ghee and yogurt in their rice, but Jewish cooks prefer to make it dairy-free so it can be served with a kosher meat meal. I tried many versions from various Persian and Sephardic Jewish cookbooks, but I was never completely satisfied with the results. Then I had my Persian Jewish friend Farah teach me her way of making it. Over time, I was able to combine the methods I’d learned to develop a terrific recipe. The most challenging part was figuring out how to create a crispy, golden tahdig.


The word tahdig is Persian, meaning “bottom of the pot.” It’s a layer of crispy rice that develops on the bottom of the pot while the rice is cooking. It’s crunchy, delicious, and considered the “prized” part of the rice. The talent of an Iranian cook is often measured by his or her ability to create a quality tahdig.

Making a tahdig requires a specific set of cooking conditions, and it takes some practice to get it right. I’ve attempted to provide clear, step-by-step instructions that will help you achieve a beautiful tahdig. Make sure you have a nonstick pot on hand– any 5 quart nonstick pot will do. I generally don’t like using nonstick cookware, but I bought a cheap 5 quart pot from the grocery store just for the purpose of making Persian rice. If you have trouble the first time, don’t be discouraged… stove heat and pot thickness can vary, which means it may take some practice with your home equipment to get it just right. Even if your tahdig doesn’t turn out perfect, your rice will still be delicious. Promise!

This is one of my all time favorite side dish recipes… it’s salty, fragrant, and tastes buttery without dairy. While I enjoy the sweet Persian rice dishes, I much prefer the savory herb flavor of this dish. It’s a lovely addition to a dinner buffet. Whenever I serve it at a party, my guests are intrigued, particularly if they’ve never tried Persian rice before. It’s a real treat!

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Persian Dill and Lima Bean Rice - Baghali Polo


  • 3 cups white basmati rice
  • 1 bag (12 oz.) frozen baby green lima beans or fresh young fava beans, shelled and steamed till tender
  • 2 tsp salt
  • 1/2 tsp saffron threads
  • 3/4 cup vegetable oil (I use grapeseed)
  • 1 cup fresh chopped dill, or more to taste

You will also need

  • Medium mixing bowl, large 5 quart nonstick pot with tight fitting lid, spice mortar and pestle, large colander, wooden spoon, thin kitchen towel
Prep Time: 1 Hour 30 Minutes
Cook Time: 1 Hour 15 Minutes
Total Time: 2 Hours 45 Minutes
Servings: 12 side servings
Kosher Key: Pareve
  • Rinse and sort the rice for a minute in the colander with cold water. Pour the rice into a medium mixing bowl and cover it with 2 inches of cold water. Let the rice soak for 90 minutes.
  • Drain the rice in a colander and rinse again with cold water, shake out the excess water. Rinse and dry the mixing bowl and set aside.
  • Bring 3 cups of water to a boil in a 5 quart nonstick pot (using a pot with a nonstick surface is important; it will help in the formation of the crispy tahdig). Pour in the rice, beans, and salt. Stir. Bring the water back to a boil. Let the mixture boil uncovered on medium high for 8 minutes. Stir the rice periodically during cooking.
  • While rice is boiling, crush the saffron threads in a mortar and pestle. Pour 1/2 cup of hot water into the mortar and let the saffron soak.
  • After 8 minutes of boiling, pour the rice into a colander and rinse with lukewarm water, then drain. Rinse and dry the pot and put it back on the stove. Stir the fresh chopped dill into the rice in the colander, making sure it is well mixed throughout the rice. I use about 1 cup of chopped dill; you can use more if you like a very green rice with a strong dill flavor.
  • In the medium mixing bowl, stir together 1/2 cup vegetable oil, half of the saffron water, and 1 1/2 cups of the cooked rice.
  • Spread the oil and rice mixture in an even layer on the bottom of the pot. This will become your tahdig.
  • Scoop the rest of the rice out of the colander and into the pot, forming a volcano-shaped mound in the middle of the pot.
  • Make a hole in the center of the volcano with the handle of a wooden spoon, pushing it almost to the bottom of the pot.
  • Place a thin kitchen towel over the top of the pot, being careful not to let the towel get too close to the heat source. Place the lid tightly over the top of the towel. Turn on the heat to medium and let the rice steam for 10 minutes.
  • Meanwhile, mix together the remaining saffron water with remaining 1/4 cup of vegetable oil.
  • After 10 minutes, remove the towel and lid from the pot and pour the saffron oil mixture evenly over the top of the rice.
  • Replace the towel and lid. Turn heat to low. Let the mixture steam for 45-50 minutes longer.
  • Move the pot to a cool surface and let it rest for 5 minutes. When ready to serve, you have two options.
  • Option 1: Scoop the rice out of the pot and mound it onto a serving plate or tray, leaving a thin layer of rice undisturbed at the bottom of the pot.
  • Use a spatula to loosen the crispy tahdeeg from the bottom of the pot and arrange the pieces around the cooked rice. Garnish with a little fresh dill, if desired.
  • Option 2: Place a large serving plate upside down on top of the pot. Invert the pot quickly and gently unmold the rice from the pot. This will keep the tahdig intact and create a cake-like effect with the rice.
  • Serve hot.

Comments (80)Post a Comment

  1. Thank you so much for this recipe. I have made it atleast 4 times in two months. I love it. It’s become an absolute favourite.
    The recipe is so well written so it makes it easier to cook this dish.

  2. Excellent - 5 starsExcellent - 5 starsExcellent - 5 starsExcellent - 5 starsExcellent - 5 stars
    Holy cow! I just made the rice and it is OUTSTANDING! The only problem I had was the fresh baby lima beans which is sadly my favorite part of the dish :( I unshelled them and put them in boiling water, before I knew it, they overcooked and turned to mush :( So, i had to omit the lima beans from the recipe (I wanted to cry). Other than that, the method is FULL PROOF! I followed the recipe to the T and it turned out soooooo delicious!!!!! The only slight modification I will make is less oil (I used EVOO because that’s what i had on hand). The rice was perfectly cooked (fluffy) and the tahdig was superb!!! I often have huge issues making rice but given this steams the entire time, it’s so difficult to mess up. THANK YOU for this wonderful recipe! I scouted the internet forever, this seemed to hit home the most, and it sure did.

    1. So happy you had a great experience with this Eve! If using fresh lima beans they need only be steamed for a few minutes, I don’t suggest boiling them.

  3. Excellent - 5 starsExcellent - 5 starsExcellent - 5 starsExcellent - 5 starsExcellent - 5 stars
    I’m 27 years old and Persian living in the UK and this meal is my signature dish, learnt it from my mum who is and absolutely amazing cook…
    Your recipe was stunning and %100 correct and with every single detail that we might only know… I take my hat for you… Well done…!!!! <3 <3 <3

    1. Wonderful Tala! Comments like this make me happier than you can imagine. I really strive to make everything on the site as authentic, accurate and delicious as possible.

  4. You are doing an amazing job cause that rice is in our formal dinner parties and wedding meals with lambshanke and it’s the most difficult one I know and even many Iranian women (my auntie-num’s sis included) give up on it as they can never make it perfect and you just did…
    I found your website randomly as I was searching for the recipe in English to send it to my husband (he is English) and he can show it to his friends (they were invited over and I was planning to make this) so they won’t get paranoid and know what exactly they are eating and I can across yours which was better than anyone I found written by Iranians in English and I’m not kidding… Still amazed and well done…!!! I’ll definitely recommend people to your website and will try other dishes from other cuisines from your list…<3

  5. Very good - 4 starsVery good - 4 starsVery good - 4 starsVery good - 4 starsVery good - 4 stars
    Great recipe!

    I sauted the lima beans in garlic before adding them to the rice. And I used 3 bunches of dill. Yum.

    The only tricky thing is the tahdig. I didn’t want to burn it so I put the flame on medium, which made it soggy. At the very end I scooped out all the rice and put the flame on high. It worked. Not as well as I would have liked but it did make the rice crispy.

    Thank you for the great recipe and beautiful photos! I’m excited that I found your site and will be making more meals 😉

  6. Excellent - 5 starsExcellent - 5 starsExcellent - 5 starsExcellent - 5 starsExcellent - 5 stars
    How interesting to come across this recipe! I make a rice dish exactly like this with fava beans and serve it with boiled eggs. Instead of expensive saffron, I use a little turmeric (curcumin). I didn’t know about this Persian dish. I make a similar recipe boiling the rice with tomato (passata or fresh tomato and chicken stock) the sticky flavoured rice at the bottom is delicious.

  7. Excellent - 5 starsExcellent - 5 starsExcellent - 5 starsExcellent - 5 starsExcellent - 5 stars
    Hi… i am from Iran and i have to say that this dish is definitely one of the most delicious and favorable dishes in Iran. And i am glad that you liked it….

  8. My Iranian wife uses a double thickness of a good quality paper towel instead of a cloth towel. It’s easier to get the size just right and not worry about the extra towel catching fire.

    1. Hi Pearl, I was taught to use a nonstick pot by the Persian woman who shared this recipe. I have never tried it in a cast iron. While I want to say it should work if the pot is well-seasoned, I can’t be certain because I haven’t tested it myself.

  9. Hi, I liked your recipe..even though I was cooking this rice for ever..its one of my favorite to..I usually cook lamb shanks on the side, to make it complete meal, and use the lamb broth instead of plain water to cook the rice. on the the side I would make yougurt and cucumber with garlic and dry mint, some call it tsazikki (I hope I spelled right, its Greek word!!)).. It just taste out of this world with lamb which I would serve it on top of the rice and the yougurt.
    Thanks again

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