Give thanks, all ye people, give thanks to the Lord,
Alleluias of freedom with joyful accord:
Let the East and the West, North and South roll along,
Sea, mountain and prairie, one thanksgiving song.
– from “The President’s Hymn” written by William Augustus Muhlenburg for President Abraham Lincoln, 1863
Abraham Lincoln, our 16th president, is celebrated for a great many achievements. The savior of our union, Lincoln guided our nation through the resolution of the Civil War. His leadership helped bring an end to slavery and peace to our war-torn nation. In addition to these historical achievements, few know that Lincoln also helped to turn Thanksgiving into a nationally observed holiday. Though he was not the first president to recognize the holiday, Lincoln ensured that Thanksgiving would be celebrated as a national day of thanks for years to come.
Lincoln is responsible for the Thanksgiving holiday we celebrate today, but he was not the first government official to recognize a day of gratitude. The Continental Congress declared a Thanksgiving holiday in 1777 for the 13 original colonies; George Washington called for a repeat of the celebration in 1789 for the newly formed United States. Periodic days of Thanksgiving were observed in the following years, particularly in the states of New England, until 1815 when the tradition seemed to fade from the national consciousness.
The holiday began to experience a resurgence before the Civil War, when 30 states and 2 territories joined Sarah Josepha Hale’s Thanksgiving cause (read more here, and get a recipe for Sarah Josepha Hale’s Apple Pudding). Sarah’s hope was that Thanksgiving would become a day for the entire nation to show gratitude for its many blessings. Her cause became popular throughout the country. Even Lincoln himself shared Thanksgiving with his family on November 29, 1860, just after being elected president. The Lincoln Thanksgiving celebration featured a roasted turkey, one of his favorite meals, followed by a church service focused on giving thanks for health, good fortune, and family.
Sarah Josepha Hale, painted by James Reid Lambdin (1807-1889). Richard’s Free Library, Newport, New Hampshire.
Unfortunately, when Civil War broke out on April 12, 1861, Sarah Josepha Hale’s plans for a national Thanksgiving holiday took a back seat to the violent upheaval between the North and South. Though the national cause was put on hold, smaller days of Thanksgiving were celebrated throughout the war. After the Confederate victory at Bull Run, Confederate President Jefferson Davis called for a Thanksgiving celebration in the South on Sunday, July 28, 1861. Individual Union states continued to observe Thanksgiving on their own, though not as a united nation, as it seemed the war-torn Union had little to be thankful for. This changed on Sunday, April 13, 1862, when President Lincoln declared a national day of Thanksgiving in honor of the victories at Fort Henry, Fort Donelson and Fort Shiloh. The Confederacy had their second and final Thanksgiving celebration on Thursday, September 28, 1862 after their second victory at Bull Run.
In 1863, President Lincoln declared not one, but two separate Thanksgiving celebrations. The first was on Thursday, August 6, 1863 following the Union’s victory at Gettysburg. The second was Lincoln’s official declaration of Thanksgiving as a nationwide holiday, to be celebrated on the last Thursday of every November.
I do therefore invite my fellow citizens in every part of the United States, and also those who are at sea and those who are sojourning in foreign lands, to set apart and observe the last Thursday of November next, as a day of Thanksgiving and Praise to our beneficent Father who dwelleth in the Heavens.
– from Abraham Lincoln’s Proclamation of Thanksgiving, October 3, 1863
There is no official evidence that Sarah Josepha Hale’s letters caused Lincoln to make this declaration, though it’s hard to believe they didn’t play some role in the establishment of a national holiday.
In 1864, Lincoln declared that the holiday would once again be observed on the last Thursday in November. Thanksgiving that year focused heavily on honoring and thanking the Union troops, and shows early evidence of the feast being the highlight of the holiday. What better way to give thanks to the Union soldiers than to fill their empty bellies with a festive meal? The Union League Club of New York made efforts to ensure that no soldier, on land, water or elsewhere, went without a Thanksgiving dinner. They asked for donations from the public, and many restaurants offered to cook the food. The soldiers feasted on turkey, cranberries and many of the other traditional foods we now associate with Thanksgiving. The response from the public was so outstanding that the list of donations in the Union League Report was 37 pages long.
Some historians also believe that Lincoln inspired the now annual tradition of the “Presidential Turkey Pardon,” when he spared the life of a turkey that had become a pet to his son Tad. The first “pardon” reportedly happened at Christmastime, but over the years the tradition became associated with Thanksgiving due to the turkey’s prominent role in the holiday feast.
During Lincoln’s time, it was impossible to know that the Thanksgiving holiday would continue for years to come. The beloved tradition continues to this day. Each American president since Abraham Lincoln has declared Thanksgiving a national holiday, set aside to observe the many blessings our land and country have offered us.
To celebrate the connection between Abraham Lincoln and Thanksgiving, I decided to make a seasonal recipe from Miss Leslie’s Complete Cookery. Mary Todd Lincoln owned a copy; some historians believe she taught herself to cook with it. As the most popular American cookbook of its time period, Miss Leslie’s is a fun way to explore what food and recipes were like during the mid-1800’s. For Thanksgiving, I made Miss Leslie’s Pumpkin Pudding, a dish that stands the test of time.
I made the pudding as written, adapting where measurements are vague or not provided. I also added more sugar and less nutmeg than the recipe originally called for (the nutmeg was much too overpowering for modern tastes as written in the original recipe). Puddings were often served with cream sauce, so I’ve included an adapted cream sauce from the same cookbook. There is no way to know if Abraham Lincoln enjoyed this particular recipe, but he very well may have. At the very least, it is likely to have been served at many Thanksgiving meals in America during this time period. It’s a fun glimpse at the way food was prepared during Abraham Lincoln’s lifetime. Consider adding this dish to your Thanksgiving buffet as a nod to Abraham Lincoln’s role in establishing a national Thanksgiving holiday.
Note: Rosewater is a common ingredient in 19th-century cooking. You can purchase a bottle at most Middle Eastern markets, or buy it online here. It sells as a pack of 4, so you might want to go in with 3 friends or give a few away as gifts… one bottle will last you a long time, the flavor is quite strong and you don’t need much to flavor a dish.
Historical recipe adapted from Miss Leslie’s Complete Cookery, 1853
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Pumpkin Pudding from Miss Leslie's Complete Cookery
- 1 pint heavy whipping cream (2 cups)
- 1 cup sugar
- 1 pint pumpkin puree- cooked or canned (2 cups)
- 8 large eggs, beaten till frothy
- 2 tbsp rosewater
- 2 tbsp white wine
- 1/2 tsp nutmeg
- 1/2 tsp cinnamon
- 1/2 tsp mace
- Butter for greasing the dish
Cream Sauce Ingredients
- 1 1/2 pints heavy whipping cream (3 cups)
- 1 1/2 tbsp cornstarch
- 1/2 cup powdered sugar
- 2 tsp nutmeg
- 1 1/2 tsp almond extract
- Note: Rosewater is water infused with the flavor and scent of roses. Bottled rosewater can be found in Middle Eastern markets.
To Make Pudding
- Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. In a large mixing bowl, whisk together the cream and sugar.
- Gradually add the pumpkin puree and beaten eggs alternately by the cupful, beating after each addition.
- Whisk in the rosewater, wine, nutmeg, cinnamon and mace till well blended and smooth.
- Grease a 2 qt. dish with butter. Pour the pumpkin batter into the dish.
- Bake the pudding for 85-95 minutes till the center no longer wobbles. Remove from heat and allow to cool. The surface may crack a bit as it cools-- don't worry, it's part of the charm.
- Serve pudding at room temperature or cold, topped with sweetened fresh whipping cream or a sweet cream sauce.
- Note: you may substitute 1 cup of milk and 1 cup of melted cooled butter for the cream, if desired. The original recipe calls for ¾ cup of sugar; I have added an additional ¼ cup of sugar and cut down the nutmeg a bit to suit modern tastes.
To Make Sauce
- Pour the heavy whipping cream into a small saucepan and heat over medium. In a small bowl, whisk together the cornstarch with 1 ½ tbsp cold water. Slowly whisk the cornstarch mixture into the cream as it heats. Whisk in the sugar, nutmeg, and almond extract till well mixed. Stir the sauce constantly as it comes to a boil. Once it boils, remove the sauce from heat. Pour it through a wire mesh strainer and allow to cool to room temperature. Serve over Pumpkin Pudding.
- Note: As written in the original text, this sauce is quite thin and somewhat bland. I’ve thickened it with a bit of cornstarch and doubled the sugar to better suit modern tastes.
Baker, James W. (2009). Thanksgiving: The Biography of an American Holiday. University of New Hampshire Press, Lebanon, NH.
Hillstrom, Laurie C. (2008). The Thanksgiving Book. Omnigraphics, US.
Leslie, Eliza (1837, reprint 1853). Miss Leslie’s Complete Cookery: Directions for Cooking in its Various Branches. Forty-ninth edition, 1853. H.C Baird, Philadelphia.
Temple, Wayne C. (2004). “The Taste Is In My Mouth A Little…” Lincoln’s Victuals and Potables. Mayhaven Publishing, Mahomet, IL.